Table.

Timeline of Some of the Scientific Discoveries and Developments in Congenital Heart Disease

1513Leonardo Da Vinci: anomalous pulmonary venous return
1842Crawford W. Long: ether as anesthetic in surgery
1852London Hospital for Sick Children
1870Adolph Fick and Arthur Grollman: Cardiac output
1895Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen: x-ray
1929Werner Forssman: right heart catheterization
1933John H. Gibbons: heart–lung machine
1937A. Castellanos, R. Pereiras, and A. Garcia: right heart angiography
1938R.E. Gross and J.P. Hubbard: surgical ligation of PDA
1944Alfred Blalock: Blalock–Taussig shunt
1944Crafoord and Nylin: resection of coarctation
1946F. Bloch and E. Purcell: the NMR phenomenon
1952W.H. Muller and J.F. Dammann: Pulmonary artery banding
1953I.G. Edler and C.H. Hertz: echocardiography
1953John H. Gibbons: ASD closure using heart–lung machine
1953Wilfred G. Bigelow: hypothermia for open-heart surgery
1955C.W. Lillehei: cross circulation
1955John W. Kirklin: heart–lung machine
1956R.A. DeWall: pump-oxygenator system
1960R.R. Lower and N.E. Shumway: orthotopic cardiac transplantation
1966Christian Bernard: cardiac transplantation
1966W.J. Rashkind and W.W. Miller: balloon atrial septostomy for complete transposition of the great arteries
1967W. Portsmann, L. Wierny, H. Warnke: interventional closure of PDA
1976Terry King: catheter closure of ASD
1981A. de la Chapelle et al: genetics of DiGeorge syndrome
1982Robert Jarvik: first implantation of permanent artificial heart
1983Aldo Castaneda: arterial switch operation
1988O.H. Frazier: first human use of Hemopump
1988W.F. Bernhard: long-term implantation of left ventricular assist device
1997C.E. Seidman et al: TBX5 as the causal gene for ASD
1998C.E. Seidman et al: NKX2-5 as the causal gene for CHD
2010Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: 1st randomized trial in hypoplastic left heart syndrome
2014S. Ishigami et al: stem-cell therapy in congenital heart disease (TICAP trial)
2015Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: shared genetic cause of congenital heart disease and neurodevelopmental abnormalities