Table 4.

Incidence of Surgical Complete Heart Block Requiring a Pacemaker by Operation

OperationComplete Heart Block
Double switch operation15.6%
Tricuspid valve replacement7.8%
Mitral valve replacement7.4%
Atrial switch with VSD6.5%
Rastelli operation4.8%
Ebstein repair (<30 d)4.2%
Konno operation4.1%
Arterial switch with VSD3.4%
Aortic valve replacement2.9%
Subaortic stenosis resection2.8%
Ross operation2.4%
Complete AV canal repair2.2%
Mitral valvuloplasty1.7%
Coarctation with VSD1.7%
  • AV indicates aortic valve; and VSD, ventricular septal defect.

  • Adapted from Liberman et al57 with permission of the publisher. Authorization for this adaptation has been obtained both from the owner of the copyright in the original work and from the owner of copyright in the translation or adaptation. Copyright ©2016, The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.