|Weight (neonates and infants)|
|Prior cardiothoracic operation|
|Any noncardiac congenital anatomic abnormality|
|Any chromosomal abnormality or syndrome|
|Prematurity (neonates and infants)|
|Preoperative/preprocedural mechanical circulatory support|
|IABP, VAD, ECMO, or CPS|
|Shock, persistent at time of surgery|
|Mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure|
|Renal failure requiring dialysis or renal dysfunction|
|Preoperative neurological deficit|
|Any other preoperative factor†|
CHSD indicates congenital heart surgery database; CPS, mechanical cardiopulmonary support system; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; STAT, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons–European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Categories; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons; and VAD, ventricular assist device.
↵* The model adjusts for each combination of primary procedure and age group. Coefficients obtained via shrinkage estimation with STAT mortality category as an auxiliary variable.
↵† Any other preoperative factor is defined as any of the other specified preoperative factors contained in the list of preoperative factors in the data collection form of the STS CHSD.
Reproduced from Jacobs and Jacobs79 with permission of the publisher. Copyright ©2015, World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery.