Table 2.

Noninvasive Imaging Modalities in Congenital Heart Disease

EchocardiographyCMRCardiac CT
Technical considerations
 Spatial resolution<1 mm1–2 mm<1 mm
 Temporal resolution20 ms30 ms60 ms (gated)
 Weaknesses• Limited acoustic windows and poor image quality• Artifact• Radiation exposure
• Vascular dimensions may be less accurate than CMR and CT• Contraindicated in some patients with intracardiac leads• Intravenous contrast
• Long acquisition time• Need to lay still
• Need to lay still• Image quality depends on adequate heart rate control
• Claustrophobia• Few physiological data
 Cardiac morphology++++++++++
 Ventricular size (volumes)++++++++++
 Myocardial fibrosis+++++++
 Coronary ostia+++++++++
 Distal coronary circulation-++++++
 Extracardiac vessels+++++++++
 Ventricular function+++++++Ungated − Gated ++
 Regional ventricular function++++++++
 Diastolic function+++++
 Flow quantification+++++
 Valvular regurgitation+++++++
 Pressure gradients++++++
 Stress imaging+++++++
  • CMR indicates cardiac magnetic resonance; and CT, computed tomography.