Table 2.

Critical Features of an HHD Animal Model

High blood pressure (>140/90 mm Hg)
Breathlessness at rest or with minimal activity
Fatigue
Edema
LVH (concentric hypertrophy with cardiac myocytes demonstrating an increased diameter) or increased LV mass
Impaired active relaxation
Impaired passive filling
Impaired EF (late)
Dilated LV internal chamber (late)
Enlarged left atrium
Myocardial fibrosis (reactive and replacement)
Abnormal pressure/volume relationship in the LV with increased LV filling pressure (increased chamber stiffness) relative to LV volume
Decreased intramyocardial capillary density
Coronary arteriolar thickening
Decreased coronary blood flow reserve
Increase biomarkers such as NT-proBNP, BNP, or troponin
  • HHD indicates hypertensive heart disease; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LV, left ventricular; EF, ejection fraction; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; and NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.