Table 1.

Associations Between High Levels of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (ie, Fit vs Unfit) and Risk of Having Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors as Defined by the Standard Definition of Metabolic Syndrome54 in a Sample of Obese Individuals (n=5959) From the Aerobic Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

Meeting Metabolic Syndrome CriteriaOR*95% Confidence Intervals
LowerUpper
High glucose0.660.590.74
High blood pressure0.750.670.84
High triglycerides0.650.580.72
Low HDL0.710.640.79
Metabolic syndrome0.540.480.61
  • Classification into cardiorespiratory fitness groups for both men and women was done using the sex- and age-specific quintiles from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)38,40 and categorized as follows: unfit when belonging to the first quintile and fit when belonging to the second to fifth quintiles. HDL indicates high-density lipoprotein; and OR indicates odds ratio.

  • * All models are adjusted for age, sex, examination year, smoking, alcohol consumption and family history of cardiovascular disease. Unfit was set as reference group, so that ORs are interpreted as how is the risk of having high glucose levels, for example, in fit individuals compared with unfit individuals. ORs <1 indicate high fitness is beneficial.