Table.

Medication Effect by Number Needed to Treat on Outcomes in Diabetes Mellitus

InterventionComparator, Magnitude of Effect, or CommentStudy Duration, yNNT/DurationEventsReference
BP lowering10 mm Hg1032DeathEmdin et al182
10 mm Hg1026Sudden death, MI, F/NFCVA, Revasc, CHF
10 mm Hg1045Retinopathy
10 mm Hg1011Albuminuria
Glucose lowering0.9% A1c6.529RetinopathyDCCT37
0.9% A1c6.583Albuminuria
0.9% A1c6.515Neuropathy
PerindoprilPlacebo427CVD, NFMIDally et al117
RamiprilPlacebo4.531DeathHeart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators115
LosartanAtenolol4.820CVD, MI, CVADahlof et al183
4.850CVA
SimvastatinWithout arterial disease533Major coronary event, CVA, RevascCollins et al128
With arterial disease512Major coronary event, CVA, Revasc
Atorvastatin>75 y3.921MI, UA, CHD death, cardiac arrest, Cor Revasc, CVAColhoun et al129
65–75 y3.933MI, UA, CHD death, cardiac arrest, Cor Revasc, CVA
ClopidogrelAspirin1.947Death, MI, CVABhatt et al157
PrasugrelClopidogrel1.921CVD, NFMI, NFCVAWiviott et al159
MetforminDietary restrictions10100MicrovascularHolman et al143
1014Death
Sulfonylurea-InsulinDietary restrictions1031MicrovascularHolman et al143
1029Death
EmpagliflozinPlacebo3.139DeathZinman et al152
  • BP indicates blood pressure; CHD death, sudden deaths ascribable to coronary heart disease, but for which an acute myocardial infarction could not be confirmed; CHF, congestive heart failure; Cor, coronary; CVA, stroke; CVD, cardiovascular death; F/NFCVA, fatal or nonfatal stroke; MI, myocardial infarction; NNT, number needed to treat; Revasc, revascularization; and UA, unstable angina.