Please review the below manuscript prepartion guidelines carefully. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the submission guidelines may be returned to the authors. Submitted manuscripts must not contain previously published material and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere in whole or in part in any language (except as an abstract; see "Prior Publication" for the definition of an abstract). Manuscripts must conform to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (http://www.icmje.org).
Authors are required to submit a cover letter. In the cover letter, please state succinctly (i) what is new or novel about the paper, and (ii) why you believe the manuscript will be of interest to the readers of Circulation Research. Please also note any potentially overlapping work that is in preparation, has been previously submitted or published, or is in-press, which should be included as a supplemental materials.
Manuscripts must be organized in this order:
- Title Page
- Sources of Funding
- Figures with Figure Legends
Manuscripts must be single-spaced, including references and figure legends, using Times New Roman or Arial, font size 11. Leave 1-inch margins on all sides. Number all pages—including Figures with legends and Tables. Abbreviations must be defined at first mention.
Wolters Kluwer Author Services
If you need help preparing a manuscript for submission, our publisher, Wolters Kluwer, in partnership with Editage, offers a unique range of editorial services for a fee, including:
- Premium Editing: Intensive language and structural editing of academic papers to improve the clarity and impact of your manuscript.
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For more information regarding Wolters Kluwer Author Services and to receive a quote for your manuscript, please visit http://wkauthorservices.editage.com. Please note that use of Wolters Kluwer Author Services does not in any way imply a guarantee, or even a likelihood, of acceptance of your manuscript in Circulation Research.
The title page (page 1) should contain these elements:
- Full title
- Authors’ names, academic degrees, and affiliations
- Short title (not to exceed 50 characters, including spaces)
- Name, email address, and complete address of corresponding author (include street name and address as well as post office box)
- The total word count of the manuscript (including Title Page, Abstract, Text, References, Tables and Figures Legends)
- Two to five subject codes that best classify your manuscript, chosen from the Subject Terms List for Authors
Abstract and Key Words
REQUIREMENT: The Abstract must be organized in four sections:
- Rationale–the reason for doing the study
- Objective–the purpose of the study
- Methods and Results–brief description of methods and presentation of results
- Conclusions–interpretation and significance of the observations, emphasizing new information
- NEW: Abstract length is limited to 300 words.
- Abbreviations must be defined at first mention in the abstract, and again at first mention in the main manuscript text.
- Do not cite references in abstract, and limit use of acronyms and abbreviations.
- After the Abstract, insert three to five keywords for use as indexing terms. These words may later be copyedited to conform to journal style.
Please create a list of nonstandard abbreviations and nonstandard acronyms used in the manuscript text. The list should be included in the manuscript and placed after the abstract, before the Introduction. The list should be entitled “Non-standard Abbreviations and Acronyms.” Its content will not count toward the word limit. Circulation Research follows AMA style for standard and non-standard abbreviations and acronyms (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com). All abbreviations and acronyms should be expanded upon first use in the text, and thereafter the abbreviation/acronym should be used.
The main manuscript version of the Methods should provide sufficient information for the reader to understand the basic methodology of the study without having to refer to the Online Supplement. There is no preset space allocation for the description of methods. Because of space restrictions, it is recommended that in the main version the Methods section be limited to essential new information. Methods that are essentially the same as those presented in previous publications should be cited or succinctly summarized rather than detailed in the version. If additional space is needed, a detailed, expanded Methods section should be included in the Online Supplement (see below). This online section should be detailed enough to enable readers to replicate the experiments without consulting previous articles.
NEW: As of October 1, 2017, upon submission of revised manuscripts, authors reporting preclinical work will need to complete a checklist aimed at enhancing rigor, transparency, and reproducibility. Different checklists will be used for studies in animals and for studies in vitro and the checklist completed for animal studies will be posted online as a supplemental file should the manuscript be accepted. For both checklists, authors are asked to include the corresponding information in the Methods text or in an online supplement. For more information, including example checklists, please see this recent editorial by Dr Bolli.
Use SI units of measure in all manuscripts when appropriate. For example, molar (M) should be changed to mol/L; mg/dL to mmol/L; and cm to mm. Units of measure previously reported as percentages (ie, hematocrit) are expressed as a decimal fraction. Measurements currently not converted to SI units in biomedical applications are blood and oxygen pressures, enzyme activity, H+ concentration, temperature, and volume. The SI unit should be used in text, followed by the conventionally used measurement in parentheses.
The following information should be included either in the manuscript version of the Methods section or in the Online Supplement:
- For animals used in experiments, state the species, strain, number used, and other pertinent descriptive characteristics.
- When describing surgical procedures on animals, identify the preanesthetic and anesthetic agents used and state the amount or concentration and the route and frequency of administration for each. The use of paralytic agents, such as curare or succinylcholine, is not an acceptable substitute for anesthetics.
- For other invasive procedures on animals, report the analgesic or tranquilizing drugs used. If none were used, provide justification for such exclusion.
- Generic rather than trademark names of all therapeutics, devices, and drugs should be used.
- Manuscripts that describe studies on humans must indicate that the study was approved by an institutional review committee and that the subjects gave informed consent.
- Please provide sex-specific and/or racial/ethnic-specific data, when appropriate, in describing outcomes of epidemiologic analyses or clinical trials; or specifically state that no sex-based or racial/ethnic-based differences were present.
- Reports of studies on both animals and humans must indicate that the procedures followed were in accordance with institutional guidelines.
- In experiments involving genetically engineered mice, inbred strain background effects have become an important concern. Detailed descriptions of the source and strain background are critical to the interpretation of data from genetically manipulated mice. The description of the mice must include the number of backcrosses and the source of the mice. Stock numbers should be supplied for commercial suppliers. Imprecise descriptions such as "mice are on a C57BL/6 background" are not acceptable. In general, it is preferable for genetically manipulated mice to be compared to wild-type littermates.
The Acknowledgments section should include any personal thanks to individuals who assisted in the performance of the studies and/or in the preparation of the manuscript. All persons acknowledged by name in the manuscript must send an email to email@example.com citing their permission to be acknowledged.
The corresponding author must indicate in the “Acknowledgment Section” of the Copyright Transfer Agreement, certifying that (1) all persons who have made substantial contributions to the manuscript (eg, data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance), but who do not fulfill authorship criteria, are named with their specific contributions in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript; (2) all persons named in the Acknowledgments section have provided the corresponding author with written permission to be named in the manuscript; and (3) if an Acknowledgments section is not included, no other persons besides the authors have made substantial contributions to this manuscript.
Sources of Funding
The Sources of Funding section should include all sources of research support, including public and private entities, commercial or institutional support, and any substantial contributions by individuals. All grant funding agency abbreviations should be completely spelled out, with the exception of NIH.
In the Disclosures section, authors must disclose any and all relationships that could be perceived as real or apparent conflict(s) of interest. If authors have nothing to disclose, they must state "None." Conflicts of interest pertain to relationships with and/or ownership interests in pharmaceutical companies, biomedical device manufacturers, or other corporations whose products or services are related to the subject matter of the article. Relationships include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, ownership of stock, membership on a standing advisory council or committee, being on the board of directors, or being publicly associated with the company or its products. Ownership interest includes any stock, stock option, partnership, membership or other equity position in an entity regardless of the form of the entity, or any option or right to acquire such position, and any rights in any patent or other intellectual property. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest could include receiving honoraria or consulting fees or receiving grants or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations.
Circulation Research uses a numbered endnote style for references (examples below), which should be cited in numerical order according to first mention in the text. References are included in the word limit. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of reference data and should verify all entries against original sources.
- Example of journal reference style:
- Patel VA, Zhang Q-J, Siddle K, Soos MA, Goddard M, Weissberg PL, Bennett MR. Defect in insulin-like growth factor-1 survival mechanism in atherosclerotic plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by reduced surface binding and signaling. Circ Res. 2001;88:895–902.
- Example of book reference style:
- Gourdie RG, Litchenberg WH, Eisenberg LM. Gap junctions in heart development. In: DeMello WC, Janse MJ, eds.Heart Cell Communication in Health and Disease. Boston, Mass: Kluwer; 1998:19–44.
- All authors must be listed in each reference. Do not use "et al." The one exception is for references with 15 or more authors; for these, please list the first 3 authors followed by "et al."
- Personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts are not legitimate references and must be cited in the text only (not in the reference list) as "(author name, unpublished data, [year])." All submitted manuscripts that are pertinent to the manuscript under consideration must accompany the submission. REQUIREMENT: Personal communications and unpublished observations must be accompanied by a letter from the source approving use of the information.
- Abstracts may be cited only if they are the sole source and must be identified in the reference as "Abstract."
- References must be from a full-length publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
- "In-press" citations must be accepted for publication and must include the name of the journal or book publisher. Note that all such articles must be uploaded online with the manuscript submission.
All table(s) in the main manuscript document should be included as as text, not as an image. Table(s) are counted in the word limit.
- Number tables using Arabic numerals, and supply a brief, informative title for each table.
- Table text must be consistent in size and style with main manuscript text.
- Supply brief column headings.
- Indicate footnotes in this order: *, †, ‡, §, ||, #, **
- Use only horizontal borders above and below the column headings and at the bottom of the table. Use extra space to delineate rows and columns.
- Abbreviations/symbols used in a table but not already defined in the main text must be defined in the table or table legend.
For initial review, it is preferred that each figure and its corresponding legend should be presented together on its own page within the manuscript PDF. Full resolution figure files are not required at initial submission; figures for review can be uploaded as a single PDF or part of a complete manuscript PDF. For additional information on preparing figures for revisions and/or accepted manuscripts, please see Revised & Accepted Manuscripts.
Authors should adhere to the following guidelines when preparing their figures:
- For graphic material, we have adopted a policy taken from The Journal of Cell Biology: No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. The groupings of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g. using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
- The use of digital media for image acquisition and processing introduces the potential for inadvertent distortion of data. To prevent such distortion, data should neither be added to, nor removed from, an image by digital manipulation. Figures assembled from multiple images must indicate the separation of the parts by lines.
- Linear adjustment of contrast, brightness or color must be applied equally to all parts of an image.
- Authors must be prepared to submit the original, unaltered files from which the submitted figures were derived, if requested by the editorial office.
- Blots and gels need to be presented with a much context as possible (ie, panels should not to be cut up into individual blots).
- Supply a scale bar with photomicrographs.
- Additional figures may be submitted for online-only publication as an Online Supplement, subject to peer review (see "Online Supplements").
- Figure parts should be clearly labeled. Letters and labels must be uniform in size and style within each figure and, when possible, between figures. The font size must be 10 point or higher.
- Authors are strongly encouraged to limit the number of panels per figure to 4. Excessive panels per figure are strongly discouraged and may result in returning the paper to the authors for revision before submission is allowed.
- Limit white space between figure panels and within each panel.
- Symbols and abbreviations must be defined in the figure or its legend.
- Avoid headings on the figure. Heading information should appear in the figure legend.
- Provide a short title (in the legend, not on the figure itself) and an explanation in brief but sufficient detail to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text (unless a similar explanation has been given in another figure).
- Figure legends are included in the word limit.
- Click here [PDF] for guidelines and examples for presenting compact and legible figures and tables, and click here [PDF] to download additional image preparation definitions and samples.
The Online Supplement undergoes peer review and must be submitted simultaneously with the original manuscript submission. If needed, the Online Supplement must contain a detailed Methods section. In addition, this supplement can be used to present supporting materials to the manuscript. Please adhere to the following guidelines when preparing the Online Supplement:
- The Online Supplement must contain its own independent reference section with references numbered sequentially, beginning with Reference #1, even if some of these references duplicate those in the print version.
- With the exception of video files and large datasets in Excel file format, authors must compile all Online Supplement materials into one (1) PDF file. The first page of this PDF should include the heading, "SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL." This PDF should include the following supplemental material: Detailed Methods, Supplemental Figures and Figure Legends, Supplemental Tables, Supplemental References, and Legends for the Video files. Please upload this PDF to your author area.
- The entire Online Supplement consists of the following:
- Detailed Methods (PDF file format)
- Supplemental Figures and Figure Legends (PDF file format)
- Supplemental Tables and supporting information (PDF file format)
- Supplemental References (PDF file format)
- Legends for Video files (PDF file format)
- Video Files (acceptable file formats are: avi, mov, mpg at max 10 MB; if larger, create and upload zip file)—optional
- Please try to keep the individual file size to 10 MB or less to facilitate easier downloading for readers.
- The Editorial Office is not responsible for extracting Online Supplement material from print manuscript material.
- The Table of Contents lists the URL where Online Supplements can be accessed.
Supplemental Materials Required for Review
A copy of all submitted manuscripts mentioned in the article must be submitted as part of the review process, including any potentially overlapping work that is in preparation, has been previously submitted or published, or is in-press; any article currently in press that is cited in the References; any abstracts related to the submitted work that are published or submitted for publication. Please note that failure to include such material is a violation of the journal's Ethical Policy (vide infra).
|Instructions for Authors|