ARHGAP18 Protects Against Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Mitigating the Synthetic and Pro-Inflammatory Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype
Rationale: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially lethal condition which can affect individuals of all ages. TAA may be complicated by the sudden onset of life threatening dissection or rupture. The underlying mechanisms leading to TAA formation, particularly in the non-syndromal idiopathic group of patients, are not well understood. Thus, identification of new genes and targets that are involved in TAA pathogenesis are required to help prevent and/or reverse the disease phenotype.
Objective: Here we explore the role of ARHGAP18, a novel Rho GAP expressed by smooth muscle cells (SMC), in the pathogenesis of TAA.
Methods and Results: Using human and mouse aortic samples, we report that ARHGAP18 levels were significantly reduced in the SMC layer of aortic aneurysms. Arhgap18 global knockout (Arhgap18-/-) mice exhibited a highly synthetic, proteolytic, and pro-inflammatory smooth muscle phenotype under basal conditions, and when challenged with angiotensin II (Ang II), developed TAA with increased frequency and severity compared to littermate controls. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed this phenotype is partly associated with strong enrichment of H3K4me3 and depletion of H3K27me3 at the MMP2 and TNF-&alpha promoters in Arhgap18-deficient SMC. We further show that TAA formation in the Arhgap18-/- mice is associated with loss of Akt activation. The abnormal SMC phenotype observed in the Arhgap18-/- mice can be partially rescued by pharmacological treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, which reduces the synthetic and pro-inflammatory phenotype of Arhgap18-deficient SMC.
Conclusions: We have identified ARHGAP18 as a novel protective gene against TAA formation, and define an additional target for the future development of treatments to limit TAA pathogenesis.
- Received January 23, 2017.
- Revision received July 6, 2017.
- Accepted July 11, 2017.