Differential Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 in Physiological Versus Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy
Rationale: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are dynamic regulators of cellular signaling. GRK5 is highly expressed within myocardium and is up-regulated in heart failure (HF). Although GRK5 is a critical regulator of cardiac GPCR signaling, recent data has uncovered non-canonical activity of GRK5 within nuclei that plays a key role in pathological hypertrophy. Targeted cardiac elevation of GRK5 in mice leads to exaggerated hypertrophy and early HF after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) due to GRK5 nuclear accumulation.
Objective: In this study we investigated the role of GRK5 in physiological, swimming induced hypertrophy (SIH).
Methods and Results: Cardiac-specific GRK5 transgenic mice (TgGRK5) and non-transgenic littermate control (NLC) mice were subjected to a 21-day high intensity swim protocol (or no swim sham controls). SIH and specific molecular and genetic indices of physiological hypertrophy were assessed including nuclear localization of GRK5 and compared to TAC. Unlike after TAC, swim-trained TgGRK5 and NLC mice exhibited similar increases in cardiac growth. Mechanistically, SIH did not lead to GRK5 nuclear accumulation, which was confirmed in vitro as insulin-like growth factor-1, a known mediator of physiological hypertrophy, was unable to induce GRK5 nuclear translocation in myocytes. We found specific patterns of altered gene expression between TAC and SIH with GRK5 overexpression. Further, SIH in post-TAC TgGRK5 mice was able to preserve cardiac function.
Conclusions: These data suggest that while nuclear-localized GRK5 is a pathological mediator after stress, this non-canonical nuclear activity of GRK5 is not induced during physiological hypertrophy.
- Received June 1, 2015.
- Revision received October 29, 2015.
- Accepted October 29, 2015.