Involvement of Bone Marrow Cells and Neuroinflammation in Hypertension
Rationale: Microglial activation in autonomic brain regions is a hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurogenic hypertension (HTN). Despite evidence that an impaired sympathetic nerve activity supplying the bone marrow (BM) increases inflammatory cells and decreases angiogenic cells, little is known about the reciprocal impact of BM-derived inflammatory cells on neuroinflammation in HTN.
Objective: Test the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory BM cells from hypertensive animals contribute to neuroinflammation and HTN via a brain-BM interaction.
Methods and Results: Following BM ablation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and reconstitution with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat BM, the resultant chimeric SHR displayed significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) associated with attenuation of both central and peripheral inflammation. In contrast, an elevated MAP along with increased central and peripheral inflammation was observed in chimeric WKY rats reconstituted with SHR BM. Oral treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, attenuated HTN in both the SHR and chronic angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused rats. This was accompanied by decreased sympathetic drive and inflammation. Furthermore, in chronic Ang II-infused rats, minocycline prevented extravasation of BM-derived cells to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), presumably via a mechanism of decreased C-C chemokine ligand 2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Conclusions: The BM contributes to HTN by increasing peripheral inflammatory cells and their extravasation into the brain. Minocycline is an effective therapy to modify neurogenic components of HTN. These observations support the hypothesis that BM-derived cells are involved in neuroinflammation, and targeting them may be an innovative strategy for neurogenic resistant HTN therapy.
- Received December 12, 2014.
- Revision received May 6, 2015.
- Accepted May 11, 2015.