Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Leads to Transient CD8 Immune Deficiency and Accelerated Immunosenescence in CMV-Seropositive Patients
Rationale: There is mounting evidence of a higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositive individuals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute MI triggers an inflammatory T-cell response that might lead to accelerated immunosenescence in CMV-seropositive patients.
Methods and Results: Thirty-four patients with acute MI undergoing primary PCI (PPCI) were longitudinally studied within 3 months following reperfusion (Cohort A). In addition, 54 patients with acute and chronic MI were analyzed in a cross-sectional study (Cohort B). CMV-seropositive patients demonstrated a greater fall in the concentration of terminally differentiated CD8 effector memory T cells (TEMRA) in peripheral blood during the first 30 min of reperfusion compared with CMV-seronegative patients (-192 vs. -63 cells/µl; p=0.008), correlating with the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) before PPCI (r=0.8; p=0.0002). A significant proportion of TEMRA cells remained depleted for at least 3 months in CMV-seropositive patients. Using high-throughput 13-parameter flow cytometry and HLA class I CMV-specific dextramers, we confirmed an acute and persistent depletion of terminally differentiated TEMRA and CMV-specific CD8+ cells in CMV-seropositive patients. Long-term reconstitution of the TEMRA pool in chronic CMV-seropositive post-MI patients was associated with signs of terminal differentiation including an increase in KLRG1 and shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells (2225 bp vs. 3397 bp; p<0.001).
Conclusions: Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in CMV-seropositive patients undergoing PPCI leads to acute loss of antigen-specific, terminally differentiated CD8 T-cells, possibly through PD-1-dependent programmed cell death. Our results suggest that acute MI and reperfusion accelerate immunosenescence in CMV-seropositive patients.
- Human Cytomegalovirus
- cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
- primary PCI
- acute myocardial infarction
- immune system
- Received May 16, 2014.
- Revision received October 29, 2014.
- Accepted November 10, 2014.
Circulation Research is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.