Mitochondrial Contagion Induced by Parkin Deficiency in Drosophila Hearts and its Containment by Suppressing Mitofusin
Rationale: Dysfunctional Parkin-mediated mitophagic culling of senescent and/or damaged mitochondria is a major pathological process underlying Parkinson's Disease and a potential genetic mechanism of cardiomyopathy. Despite epidemiological associations between Parkinson's Disease and heart failure, the role of Parkin and mitophagic quality control in maintaining normal cardiac homeostasis is poorly understood.
Objective: We used germ-line mutants and cardiac-specific RNA interference to interrogate Parkin regulation of cardiomyocyte mitochondria and examine functional crosstalk between mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila heart tubes.
Methods and Results: Transcriptional profiling of Parkin knockout mouse hearts revealed compensatory upregulation of multiple related E3 ubiquitin ligases. As Drosophila lack most of these redundant genes, we examined heart tubes of parkin knockout flies and observed accumulation of enlarged hollow "donut" mitochondria with dilated cardiomyopathy that could be rescued by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin expression. Identical abnormalities were induced by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin suppression using two different inhibitory RNAs. Parkin-deficient cardiomyocyte mitochondria exhibited dysmorphology, depolarization, and reactive oxygen species generation without calcium cycling abnormalities, pointing to a primary mitochondrial defect. Suppressing cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fusion in Parkin-deficient fly heart tubes completely prevented the cardiomyopathy and corrected mitochondrial dysfunction without normalizing mitochondrial dysmorphology, demonstrating a central role for mitochondrial fusion in the cardiomyopathy provoked by impaired mitophagy.
Conclusions: Parkin deficiency and resulting mitophagic disruption produces cardiomyopathy in part by contamination of the cardiomyocyte mitochondrial pool through fusion between improperly retained dysfunctional/senescent and normal mitochondria. Limiting mitochondrial contagion by inhibiting organelle fusion shows promise for minimizing organ dysfunction produced by defective mitophagic signaling.
- Received September 30, 2013.
- Revision received November 4, 2013.
- Accepted November 5, 2013.