Unique Cardiac Purkinje Fiber Transient-Outward Current Beta-Subunit Composition: A Potential Molecular Link to Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation
Rationale: A chromosomal-haplotype producing cardiac overexpression of dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein-6 (DPP6) causes familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF). The molecular basis of transient-outward current (Ito) in Purkinje fibers (PFs) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that DPP6 contributes to PF Ito and that its overexpression might specifically alter PF Ito-properties and repolarization.
Objective: To assess the potential role of DPP6 in PF-Ito.
Methods and Results: Clinical data in 5 IVF-patients suggested arrhythmia-origin in the PF conducting-system. PF and ventricular-muscle (VM) Ito had similar density, but PF Ito differed from VM in having tetraethylammonium-sensitivity and slower recovery. DPP6-overexpression significantly increased, whereas DPP6-kockdown reduced, Ito-density and tetraethylammonium-sensitivity in canine PF, but not VM-cells. The K+-channel interacting β-subunit KChIP2, essential for normal expression of transient outward current (Ito) in VM, was weakly-expressed in human PFs, whereas DPP6 and frequenin (NCS-1) were enriched. Heterologous expression of Kv4.3 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-cells produced very small Ito; Ito-amplitude was greatly enhanced by co-expression with KChIP2 or DPP6. Co expression of DPP6 with Kv4.3 and KChIP2 failed to alter Ito versus Kv4.3/KChIP2 alone, but DPP6 expression with Kv4.3 and NCS-1 (to mimic PF Ito-composition), greatly enhanced Ito versus Kv4.3/NCS-1 and recapitulated characteristic PF kinetic/pharmacological properties. A mathematical model of cardiac PF action potentials showed that Ito-enhancement can greatly accelerate PF repolarization.
Conclusions: These results point to a previously-unknown central role of DPP6 in PF Ito, with DPP6 gain-of-function selectively enhancing PF-current, and suggest that a DPP6-mediated PF early repolarization syndrome might be a novel molecular paradigm for some forms of IVF.
- molecular electrophysiology
- genetic arrhythmia syndromes
- ion channel
- cardiac arrhythmia
- ventricular tachycardia arrhythmia
- sudden death
- potassium channels
- Received October 4, 2012.
- Revision received March 21, 2013.
- Accepted March 26, 2013.