CaMKIIδ Mediates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through NF-κB
Rationale: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated as a maladaptive mediator of cardiac ischemic injury. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response associated with in vivo ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is initiated through CaMKII signaling.
Objective:To assess the contribution of CaMKIIδ to the development of inflammation, infarct and ventricular dysfunction following in vivo I/R and define early cardiomyocyte-autonomous events regulated by CaMKIIδ using cardiac-specific knockout (KO) mice.
Methods and Results: Wild-type (WT) and CaMKIIδ KO mice were subjected to in vivo I/R by occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for 1-hr followed by reperfusion for various times. CaMKIIδ deletion protected the heart against I/R damage as evidenced by decreased infarct size, attenuated apoptosis and improved functional recovery. CaMKIIδ deletion also attenuated I/R induced inflammation and upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Further studies demonstrated that I/R rapidly increases CaMKII activity, leading to NF-κB activation within minutes of reperfusion. Experiments using cyclosporine A and cardiac-specific CaMKIIδ knockout mice indicate that NF-κB activation is initiated independent of necrosis and within cardiomyocytes. Expression of activated CaMKII in cardiomyocytes lead to I kappa B kinase (IKK) phosphorylation and concomitant increases in nuclear p65. Experiments using an IKK inhibitor support the conclusion that this is a proximal site of CaMKII-mediated NF-κB activation.
Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that CaMKIIδ mediates NF-κB activation in cardiomyocytes following in vivo I/R and suggests that CaMKIIδ serves to trigger, as well as to sustain subsequent changes in inflammatory gene expression that contribute to myocardial I/R damage.
- ischemic heart disease
- myocardial inflammation
- reperfusion injury
- nuclear factor-kappa B
- calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
- Received July 21, 2012.
- Revision received February 1, 2013.
- Accepted February 6, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013, Circulation Research