Circulation Research Thematic Synopsis: Cellular Reprogramming & Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent". Sir John Gordon pioneered the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer, wherein the nucleus of a mature cell is transplanted into an enucleated egg, to produce a living organism (tadpole).1 The technique, which is commonly referred to as "cloning", produced a paradigm shift in developmental biology and paved the way for genome reprogramming for reproductive gains. It led to subsequent cloning of a dozen or so species, with "Dolly the sheep" being the most famous cloned animal, cloned by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in July 1996.2 Although Dolly was euthanized in 2003 because of progressive lung and degenerative joint diseases, the success of the nuclear transfer technique demonstrated that the genome, even when isolated from adult cells, contains the information necessary to generate a living organism. [Extract]
- Accepted December 11, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Heart Association