TMEM16A Channels Contribute to the Myogenic Response in Cerebral Arteries
Rationale: Pressure-induced arterial depolarization and constriction (the myogenic response), is a smooth muscle cell (myocyte)-specific mechanism that controls regional organ blood flow and systemic blood pressure. Several different non-selective cation channels contribute to pressure-induced depolarization, but signaling mechanisms involved are unclear. Similarly uncertain is the contribution of anion channels to the myogenic response and physiological functions and mechanisms of regulation of recently discovered transmembrane 16A (TMEM16A) chloride (Cl-) channels in arterial myocytes.
Objective: Investigate the hypothesis that myocyte TMEM16A channels control membrane potential and contractility and contribute to the myogenic response in cerebral arteries.
Methods and Results: Cell swelling induced by hyposmotic bath solution stimulated Cl- currents in arterial myocytes that were blocked by TMEM16A channel inhibitory antibodies, RNAi-mediated selective TMEM16A channel knockdown, removal of extracellular calcium (Ca2+), replacement of intracellular EGTA with BAPTA, a fast Ca2+ chelator, and Gd3+ and SKF-96365, non-selective cation channel blockers. In contrast, nimodipine, a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitor, or thapsigargin, which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores, did not alter swelling-activated TMEM16A currents. Pressure (-40 mmHg)-induced membrane stretch activated ion channels in arterial myocyte cell-attached patches that were inhibited by TMEM16A antibodies and were of similar amplitude to recombinant TMEM16A channels. TMEM16A knockdown reduced intravascular pressure-induced depolarization and vasoconstriction, but did not alter depolarization (60 mmol/L K+)-induced vasoconstriction.
Conclusions: Membrane stretch activates arterial myocyte TMEM16A channels, leading to membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction. Data also provide a mechanism by which a local Ca2+ signal generated by non-selective cation channels stimulates TMEM16A channels to induce myogenic constriction.
- Membrane potential
- Smooth muscle cells
- Arterial smooth muscle
- ClCa channel
- myogenic tone
- Received July 8, 2012.
- Accepted August 7, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Heart Association