CIP, a Cardiac Isl1-Interacting Protein, Represses Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy
Rationale: Mammalian heart has minimal regenerative capacity. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes cardiac remodeling. Pressure and volume overload in the heart cause increased size (hypertrophic growth) of cardiomyocytes. Whereas the regulatory pathways that activate cardiac hypertrophy have been well-established, the molecular events that inhibit or repress cardiac hypertrophy are less known.
Objective: To identify and investigate novel regulators that modulate cardiac hypertrophy.
Methods and Results: Here, we report the identification, characterization, and functional examination of a novel cardiac Isl1-interacting protein (CIP). CIP was identified from a bioinformatic search for novel cardiac-expressed genes in mouse embryonic hearts. CIP encodes a nuclear protein without recognizable motifs. Northern blotting, in situ hybridization, and reporter gene tracing demonstrated that CIP is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes of developing and adult hearts. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified Isl1, a LIM/homeodomain transcription factor essential for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells in the second heart field, as a cofactor of CIP. CIP directly interacted with Isl1, and we mapped the domains of these two proteins, which mediate their interaction. We show that CIP represses the transcriptional activity of Isl1 in the activation of the myocyte enhancer factor 2C. The expression of CIP was dramatically reduced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Most importantly, overexpression of CIP repressed agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Conclusions: Our studies therefore identify CIP as a novel regulator of cardiac hypertrophy.
- Received October 25, 2011.
- Revision received January 20, 2012.
- Accepted January 27, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.