High-Mobility Group A1 Protein
A New Coregulator of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ–Mediated Transrepression in the Vasculature
Rationale: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of gene transcription in vascular cells and mediates the vascular protection observed with antidiabetic glitazones.
Objective: To determine the molecular mechanism of ligand-dependent transrepression in vascular smooth muscle cells and their impact on the vascular protective actions of PPARγ.
Methods and Results: Here, we report a molecular pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells by which ligand-activated PPARγ represses transcriptional activation of the matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene, a crucial mediator of vascular injury. PPARγ-mediated transrepression of the MMP-9 gene was dependent on the presence of the high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein, a gene highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, newly identified by oligonucleotide array expression analysis. Transrepression of MMP-9 by PPARγ and regulation by HMGA1 required PPARγ SUMOylation at K367. This process was associated with formation of a complex between PPARγ, HMGA1, and the SUMO E2 ligase Ubc9 (ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 conjugating enzyme). After PPARγ ligand stimulation, HMGA1 and PPARγ were recruited to the MMP-9 promoter, which facilitated binding of SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), a nuclear corepressor involved in transrepression. The relevance of HMGA1 for vascular PPARγ signaling was underlined by the complete absence of vascular protection through a PPARγ ligand in HMGA1−/− mice after arterial wire injury.
Conclusions: The present data suggest that ligand-dependent formation of HMGA1-Ubc9-PPARγ complexes facilitates PPARγ SUMOylation, which results in the prevention of SMRT corepressor clearance and induction of MMP-9 transrepression. These data provide new information on PPARγ-dependent vascular transcriptional regulation and help us to understand the molecular consequences of therapeutic interventions with PPARγ ligands in the vasculature.
- Received July 26, 2011.
- Revision received December 14, 2011.
- Accepted December 16, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.