FSP-1 Silencing in Bone Marrow Cells Suppresses Neointima Formation in Vein Graft
Rationale: Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1) plays multiple roles in promoting cell proliferation and motility. Increased FSP-1 expression in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) has been associated with their enhanced proliferation.
Objective: To study how FSP-1 contributes to neointima formation of vein grafts.
Methods: Arteriovenous grafts were created in wild-type or FSP-1–GFP mice (green fluorescent protein expression regulated by FSP-1 promoter). The effects of FSP-1 on bone marrow (BM) cell migration and on SMC proliferation were studied in vivo and in vitro.
Results: On creation of a vein graft, there was rapid deposition of platelets on the denuded surface leading to secretion of the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). This was followed by recruitment of BM-derived cells expressing the SDF-1α receptor CXCR4; homing of FSP-1–positive cells was found to be dependent on platelet-derived SDF-1α. FSP-1 was expressed in 8% of the BM cells, and 20% of these express CD45; 85% of FSP-1–positive cells express CD11b. We found that the FSP-1–positive cells migrated into the vein graft in a Rac-1–dependent fashion. FSP-1 expression was also found to stimulate proliferation of SMCs through a MEK5-ERK5 signaling pathway that can be suppressed by a dominant-negative Rac1. Consequently, knocking down FSP-1 expression in BM cells prevented neointimal formation.
Conclusions: BM-derived FSP-1+ cells enhance neointima formation through an increase in transendothelial invasion with stimulation of SMC proliferation. The Rac1 and ERK5 signaling cascade mediate FSP-1–induced responses in SMCs and BM cells. This novel pathophysiology suggests a new therapeutic target, FSP-1, for preventing the development of neointima in vein grafts.
- Received April 2, 2011.
- Revision received November 10, 2011.
- Accepted November 16, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.