Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 3 Promotes Recruitment of Monocyte/Macrophages in Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
Rationale: The role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has not been investigated.
Objective: We hypothesized that the S1P receptor 3 (S1P3) plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results: We examined atherosclerotic lesion development in mice deficient for S1P3 and apolipoprotein (Apo)E. Although S1P3 deficiency did not affect lesion size after 25 or 45 weeks of normal chow diet, it resulted in a dramatic reduction of the monocyte/macrophage content in lesions of S1P3−/−/ApoE−/− double knockout mice. To search for putative defects in monocyte/macrophage recruitment, we examined macrophage-driven inflammation during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Elicited peritoneal macrophages were reduced in S1P3-deficient mice and expressed lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Bone marrow–derived S1P3-deficient macrophages produced less MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In vitro, S1P was chemotactic for wild-type but not S1P3-deficient peritoneal macrophages. In vivo, S1P concentration increased rapidly in the peritoneal cavity after initiation of peritonitis. Treatment with the S1P analog FTY720 attenuated macrophage recruitment to the peritoneum. Studies in bone marrow chimeras showed that S1P3 in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells contributed to monocyte/macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Finally, S1P3 deficiency increased the smooth muscle cell content of atherosclerotic lesions and enhanced neointima formation after carotid ligation arguing for an antiproliferative/antimigratory role of S1P3 in the arterial injury response.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that S1P3 mediates the chemotactic effect of S1P in macrophages in vitro and in vivo and plays a causal role in atherosclerosis by promoting inflammatory monocyte/macrophage recruitment and altering smooth muscle cell behavior.
- sphingosine-1-phosphate (SIP)
- vascular biology
- lipid metabolites
- Received April 27, 2010.
- Revision received December 3, 2010.
- Accepted December 6, 2010.
- © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.