Elevated Cytosolic Na+ Decreases Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake During Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Impairs Energetic Adaptation in Cardiac Myocytes
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Mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) regulates oxidative phosphorylation and thus contributes to energy supply and demand matching in cardiac myocytes. Mitochondria take up Ca2+ via the Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) and extrude it through the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (mNCE). It is controversial whether mitochondria take up Ca2+ rapidly, on a beat-to-beat basis, or slowly, by temporally integrating cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) transients. Furthermore, although mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux is governed by mNCE, it is unknown whether elevated intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) affects mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and bioenergetics. To monitor [Ca2+]m, mitochondria of guinea pig cardiac myocytes were loaded with rhod-2–acetoxymethyl ester (rhod-2 AM), and [Ca2+]c was monitored with indo-1 after dialyzing rhod-2 out of the cytoplasm. [Ca2+]c transients, elicited by voltage-clamp depolarizations, were accompanied by fast [Ca2+]m transients, whose amplitude (Δ) correlated linearly with Δ[Ca2+]c. Under β-adrenergic stimulation, [Ca2+]m decay was ≈2.5-fold slower than that of [Ca2+]c, leading to diastolic accumulation of [Ca2+]m when amplitude or frequency of Δ[Ca2+]c increased. The MCU blocker Ru360 reduced Δ[Ca2+]m and increased Δ[Ca2+]c, whereas the mNCE inhibitor CGP-37157 potentiated diastolic [Ca2+]m accumulation. Elevating [Na+]i from 5 to 15 mmol/L accelerated mitochondrial Ca2+ decay, thus decreasing systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]m. In response to gradual or abrupt changes of workload, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) levels were maintained at 5 mmol/L [Na+]i, but at 15 mmol/L, the NADH pool was partially oxidized. The results indicate that (1) mitochondria take up Ca2+ rapidly and contribute to fast buffering during a [Ca2+]c transient; and (2) elevated [Na+]i impairs mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, with consequent effects on energy supply and demand matching. The latter effect may have implications for cardiac diseases with elevated [Na+]i.