High-Density Lipoproteins Protect Isolated Rat Hearts From Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Cardiac Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Content and Enhancing Prostaglandin Release
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The incidence and severity of primary cardiac events are inversely related to the plasma concentration of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). We investigated whether HDLs may exert a direct cardioprotection in buffer-perfused isolated rat hearts, which underwent a 20-minute low-flow ischemia followed by a 30-minute reperfusion. The administration of HDLs at physiological concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) during the 10 minutes immediately before ischemia rapidly and remarkably improved postischemic functional recovery and decreased creatine kinase release in the coronary effluent. Reconstituted HDLs containing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and phosphatidylcholine, but not lipid-free apoA-I or phosphatidylcholine liposomes, were also effective in protecting the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. HDLs at reperfusion were less effective than when given before ischemia. HDLs caused a dose-dependent reduction of ischemia-induced cardiac tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression and content, which correlated with the improved functional recovery. A parallel increase of TNF-α release in the coronary effluent was observed, due to a direct binding of cardiac TNF-α to HDLs. Taken together, these findings argue for a cause-effect relationship between the HDL-mediated removal of TNF-α from the ischemic myocardium and the HDL-induced cardioprotection. Indeed, etanercept, a recombinant TNF-α–blocking protein, caused a dose-dependent improvement of postischemic functional recovery. HDLs also enhanced ischemia-induced prostaglandin release, which may contribute to the cardioprotective effect. A low plasma HDL level may expose the heart to excessive ischemia-reperfusion damage, and HDL-targeted therapies may be helpful to induce immediate or delayed myocardial protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury.