Protease-Activated Receptor-1–Mediated DNA Synthesis in Cardiac Fibroblast Is via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation
Distinct PAR-1 Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Fibroblasts and Cardiomyocytes
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Proteases elaborated by inflammatory cells in the heart would be expected to drive cardiac fibroblasts to proliferate, but protease-activated receptor (PAR) function in cardiac fibroblasts has never been considered. This study demonstrates that PAR-1 is the only known PAR family member functionally expressed by cardiac fibroblasts and that PAR-1 activation by thrombin leads to increased DNA synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts. The increase in DNA synthesis induced by PAR-1 substantially exceeds the effects of other G protein–coupled receptor agonists in this cell type. PAR-1 stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular calcium via pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive and PTX-insensitive pathways. Activation of PAR-1 leads to an increase in Src, Fyn, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, with EGFR receptor transactivation by Src family kinases the major mechanism for PAR-1–dependent activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase B. Activation of PAR-1 also leads to an increase in DNA synthesis. PAR-1 signaling is highly contextual in nature, inasmuch as PAR-1 activates extracellular signal–regulated kinase and only weakly stimulates protein kinase B via a pathway that does not involve EGFR transactivation in cardiomyocytes. PAR-1 responses in cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes are predicted to contribute importantly to remodeling during cardiac injury and/or inflammation.