Role of Na(+)-H+ exchange in mediating effects of endothelin-1 on normal and ischemic/reperfused hearts.
Endothelin (ET) has been shown to be elevated under conditions of cardiac pathology and to produce diverse cardiac effects, including coronary constriction and a positive inotropic influence. We characterized the concentration- and time-dependent effects of the most potent of the ET isoforms, ET-1 (0.4, 2, and 4 nmol/L), on myocardial contractility and coronary resistance and assessed its effects on the ischemic and reperfused heart. Because ET-1 has been shown to activate the Na(+)-H+ exchanger in cardiac myocytes, we determined the contribution of the antiport by examining the effects of ET-1 in the presence of the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor methylisobutyl amiloride (MIA). At all three concentrations, ET-1 produced an initial positive inotropic effect that was reversed with continued perfusion, the degree of the reversal being dependent on ET-1 concentration. With 0.4 nmol/L, contractility returned to pre-ET-1 values, whereas after 75 minutes of perfusion with 4 nmol/L ET-1, contractility was depressed by 75%. At all concentrations, ET-1 produced a coronary-constricting effect, whereas an elevation in resting tension was observed only with 4 nmol/L ET-1. MIA significantly prevented the positive inotropic effect of ET-1 but had no effect on loss in function or elevation in resting tension produced by 4 nmol/L ET-1. Furthermore, MIA partially, but not significantly, attenuated the constricting effects of all ET-1 concentrations. In the ischemic heart, 0.4 nmol/L ET-1 appeared to delay the loss in contractility produced by cessation of flow, although the effect was not significant. Higher concentrations of ET-1 were without effect on ischemia-induced contractile depression, although their presence produced a marked elevation in resting tension during ischemia that was attenuated by MIA. Recovery in contractility was reduced by all concentrations of ET-1, although the effects of the lowest concentration were associated primarily with defective relaxation. The depressant effects of ET-1 either in normal or ischemic/reperfused hearts were irreversible. The inhibitory effects of ET-1 on contractile recovery were associated with diminished tissue glycogen and elevated lactate levels. High-energy phosphates after reperfusion were depressed in hearts treated with 4 nmol/L ET-1. The attenuation in contractile recovery and alterations in metabolite content were prevented by MIA. These results provide evidence that ET-1 produces complex effects on heart function that are likely mediated via different mechanisms and demonstrate its ability to aggravate ischemic and reperfusion injury through a mechanism possibly involving Na(+)-H+ exchange activation.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association