Regulation of fos and jun immediate-early genes by redox or metabolic stress in cardiac myocytes.
We have previously demonstrated coordinate inductions of c-fos, c-jun, jun B, and jun D in cardiac myocytes exposed to hypoxia for 2 to 4 hours. Induction of these transcripts occurred before any significant loss of intracellular ATP. In the present study, the origin of the signal(s) that regulates immediate-early gene induction was investigated by comparing the effects of hypoxia with those of the metabolic inhibitors cyanide, deoxyglucose and cyanide combined, and iodoacetic acid. Cyanide, an inhibitor of oxidative metabolism, closely mimicked the metabolic effects of hypoxia, with elimination of oxygen consumption, increased lactate production, and minimal decline in ATP levels under both conditions. Compared with hypoxia, cyanide mediated small transient inductions of fos and jun transcripts that followed a different time course. The combination of cyanide and deoxyglucose resulted in inhibition of lactate production as well as respiration, and ATP dropped rapidly to 20% of control levels. The loss of intracellular ATP was followed by fourfold inductions of c-fos and c-jun with minor changes in jun B and jun D transcript levels. Similarly, iodoacetic acid caused a major (90%) loss of ATP and irreversible cell damage as measured by leakage of creatine phosphokinase enzyme and loss of membrane arachidonic acid; ATP loss was followed by fivefold to sevenfold inductions of c-fos, c-jun and jun B transcripts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association