Suppression of neointimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after arterial injury in the rat by inhibitors of Na(+)-H+ exchange.
Replication of vascular smooth muscle cells is a key event in the pathogenesis of restenosis following angioplasty. Little is known about early biochemical events involved in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells following arterial injury. In the present study, the effect of Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitors on neointima formation after balloon injury of the rat carotid artery was investigated. Neointima formation was quantified 14 days after injury by morphometric measurement of cross-sectional neointimal area and by fluorometric determination of DNA content. The specific Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor 3-methylsulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl guanidine mesylate (Hoe 694) dose-dependently reduced neointimal area and DNA content, the latter finding indicating a true antiproliferative effect. The structurally different Na(+)-H+ exchange blocker 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride hydrochloride had comparable inhibitory effects on neointimal area and DNA content, whereas 5-methylsulfonyl-2-piperidino-benzoyl guanidine hydrochloride, a position isomer of Hoe 694 lacking Na(+)-H+ exchange blocking properties, did not suppress neointima formation. The effect of Na(+)-H+ exchange blockers on neointima formation depended on the duration of drug application. Maximal suppression was achieved only when Hoe 694 was applied throughout the entire experiment for 14 days. This inhibitory effect of Na(+)-H+ exchange blocker application for the first 2 weeks following injury lasted for 2 months. In conclusion, the results of the present study reveal a potential role of Na(+)-H+ exchange for smooth muscle cell proliferation in vascular disease.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association