Physiological pH. Effects on posthypoxic proximal tubular injury.
After O2 deprivation, tissue acidosis rapidly self-corrects. This study assessed the effect of this pH correction on the induction, and pathways, of posthypoxic proximal tubular injury. In addition, ways to prevent the resultant injury were explored. Isolated rat proximal tubular segments (PTSs) were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (50/30 or 30/50 minutes) under the following incubation conditions: 1) continuous pH 7.4, 2) continuous pH 6.8, or 3) hypoxia at pH 6.8 and reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (NaHCO3 or Tris base addition). Continuously oxygenated PTSs maintained under these same pH conditions served as controls. Lethal cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. pH effects on several purported pathways of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury were also assessed (ATP depletion, lipid peroxidation, and membrane deacylation). Acidosis blocked hypoxic LDH release (pH 7.4, 50 +/- 2%; pH 6.8, 6 +/- 1%) without mitigating membrane deacylation or ATP depletion. During reoxygenation, minimal LDH was released (3-5%) if pH was held constant. However, if posthypoxic pH was corrected, immediate (< or = 5 minutes) and marked cell death (e.g., 55 +/- 3% with Tris) occurred. This was dissociated from lipid peroxidation or new deacylation, and it was preceded by a depressed ATP/ADP ratio (suggesting an acidosis-associated defect in hypoxic/posthypoxic cell energetics). Realkalinization injury was not inevitable, since it could be substantially blocked by 1) posthypoxic glycine addition, 2) transient posthypoxic hypothermia, or 3) allowing a 10-minute reoxygenation (cell recovery) period before base addition. Neither mannitol nor graded buffer Ca2+ deletion conferred protection. Acute pH correction caused no injury to continuously oxygenated PTSs. Conclusions are as follows: 1) Posthypoxic "pH shock" causes virtually immediate cell death, not by causing de novo injury but, rather, by removing the cytoprotective effect of acidosis. 2) This injury can be prevented by a variety of methods, indicating a great potential for salvaging severely damaged posthypoxic PTSs.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association