Role of platelet-activating factor in hypotension and platelet activation induced by infusion of thrombolytic agents in rabbits.
Infusion of the thrombolytic agents streptokinase (SK, 666 units/kg per minute for 60 minutes) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, 10 micrograms/kg per minute for 15 minutes) in rabbits induced a significant hypotension and decrease in platelet count that were completely prevented by treatment with platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists SDZ 63-675 and WEB 2170. PAF synthesis by vascular tissue was suggested by its extraction from blood-free heart and aorta of rabbits treated in vivo with SK or t-PA but not of control rabbits. In contrast, PAF was not detected in peripheral blood. Ex vivo studies on platelet aggregation response to ADP and PAF performed on platelet-rich plasma obtained before and after SK and t-PA infusion demonstrated an early hyperaggregable phase, abrogated by PAF receptor antagonists and followed by reduced sensitivity of platelets to PAF. The ED50 values for the aggregation of washed rabbit platelets induced by PAF but not thrombin were significantly increased at 60 and 120 minutes after SK and t-PA infusion, suggesting a specific desensitization of platelets to PAF. In contrast to PAF receptor antagonists, aspirin did not significantly modify the hypotension and the platelet hyperaggregability induced by SK or t-PA or the platelet hypoaggregability induced by t-PA. Thrombocytopenia induced by t-PA, but not by SK, was partially prevented by aspirin. The effect of SK, t-PA, and plasmin on the aggregation of washed platelets from untreated rabbits and from humans was also studied. Whereas SK and t-PA were inactive, plasmin induced dose-dependent platelet aggregation that was inhibited by platelet pretreatment with PAF receptor antagonists. In conclusion, the effect of PAF receptor antagonists observed in the present experimental model suggests that the hypotension and activation of platelets induced by SK and t-PA infusion are mediated by PAF.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association