Coronary collateral development in swine after coronary artery occlusion.
We have quantified the development of the coronary collateral circulation in the pig. The collateral circulation was induced to grow by placing an ameroid occluder on the left circumflex coronary artery. Two to 16 weeks after ameroid placement, the coronary collateral circulation was identified after the injection of several colors of a silicone polymer into the coronary arteries and the aorta. We identified intercoronary and extracardiac collaterals and quantified their number, location, size, and wall thickness. Intercoronary collaterals grew to a level that represents a 14-fold increase in normal collateral blood flow under resting conditions compared with the values in an animal not subjected to coronary artery occlusion. Extracardiac collaterals could potentially supply approximately 30% of resting flow. The sources of the extracardiac collaterals were the bronchial and internal mammary arteries. Coronary collateral morphometry and DNA synthesis in the pig heart also were examined. Coronary collaterals had significantly less smooth muscle than did normal arterioles. This may account, in part, for the reduced response of the coronary collaterals to vasodilators. We observed intense DNA synthesis in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the first 2 or 3 weeks of ischemia. However, DNA synthesis rapidly ceased after this time, coincident with coronary collateral reserve values (ischemic/nonischemic regional blood flow ratios during maximal vasodilation) reaching their maximum level. This suggests that failure of the vessels to continue proliferating accounts for the occurrence of the plateau in blood flow levels.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association