Body surface mapping of ectopic left ventricular activation. QRS spectrum in patients with prior myocardial infarction.
To improve electrocardiographic localization of the site of origin of ectopic left ventricular (LV) impulse formation in the heart with prior myocardial infarction, 62-lead body surface QRS integral maps were studied during LV pacing at a total of 221 endocardial sites in 14 patients with previous anterior (AMI), inferior (IMI), lateral (LMI), or anterior and inferior (AMI/IMI) myocardial infarction. The anatomic location of each pacing site was computed using digitized biplane fluoroscopic images and plotted on standardized LV endocardial polar projections. A data base of characteristic AMI and IMI mean QRS integral maps was developed after visually selecting subgroups with nearly identical QRS integral morphology from the ectopic activation sequences produced at 110 sites in eight patients with AMI and at 66 sites in four patients with IMI. Intrasubgroup pattern uniformity and intersubgroup pattern variability were statistically verified. The endocardial pacing site locations belonging to each AMI and IMI subgroup were depicted as segments on the respective LV polar projections. In patients with AMI, a total of 18 typical mean QRS integral patterns were obtained, whereas 22 different mean total QRS integral patterns showing more substantial intersubgroup variation were acquired in patients with IMI. Posterolateral regions exhibited a relatively low electrocardiographic sensitivity (six AMI and five IMI patterns) as compared with anteroseptal regions (12 AMI and 17 IMI patterns). Total QRS integral patterns obtained at 24 sites in one patient with LMI were largely compatible with the IMI mean total QRS integral patterns, whereas the majority of total QRS integral patterns acquired at 21 sites in one patient with AMI/IMI corresponded with the AMI mean total QRS integral patterns. The results show that total body surface QRS integral maps generated during LV pacing in patients with prior myocardial infarction cluster by pattern and that each QRS integral pattern is related to a circumscribed endocardial segment of ectopic impulse formation. The relation between a given QRS integral pattern and the position and size of the corresponding paced segment is dependent on infarct location. The present infarct-specific data base of characteristic total body surface QRS integral patterns provides a clinical tool to obtain detailed electrocardiographic localization of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with previous myocardial infarction.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association