Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels by cromakalim. Effects on cellular K+ loss and cardiac function in ischemic and reperfused mammalian ventricle.
Pharmacological modulation of [K+]o accumulation and action potential changes during acute myocardial ischemia is under evaluation as a promising new antiarrhythmic and cardioprotective strategy during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We studied the effects of cromakalim, a K+ channel opener that activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels, in isolated arterially perfused rabbit interventricular septa subjected to ischemia and reperfusion and, through use of the patch clamp technique, in inside-out membrane patches excised from guinea pig ventricular myocytes. During aerobic perfusion, 5 microM cromakalim shortened action potential duration (APD) from 217 +/- 7 to 201 +/- 10 msec, had no effect on [K+]o, and reduced tension by 17 +/- 3% (n = 11). During ischemia, pretreatment with 5 microM cromakalim resulted in 1) more rapid APD shortening (71 +/- 9 versus 166 +/- 7 msec at 10 minutes and 63 +/- 12 versus 122 +/- 8 msec at 30 minutes), 2) similar [K+]o accumulation after 10 minutes (8.9 +/- 0.3 versus 9.6 +/- 0.5 mM) but a trend toward increased [K+]o accumulation after 30 minutes (11.0 +/- 1.7 versus 9.6 +/- 1.0 mM), and 3) similar times for tension to decline to 50% of control (2.14 +/- 0.16 versus 2.14 +/- 0.19 minutes) but shorter time to fall to 20% of control (4.34 +/- 0.33 versus 4.90 +/- 0.22 minutes; p = 0.003). After 60 minutes of reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia, recovery of function was similar, with a trend toward better recovery of developed tension (to 58 +/- 9% versus 39 +/- 10% of control; p = 0.18) and tissue ATP levels in cromakalim-treated hearts but no differences in APD or rest tension. Thus, 5 microM cromakalim had mild effects in normal heart but greatly accelerated APD shortening during ischemia without markedly increasing [K+]o accumulation, possibly because the more rapid APD shortening reduced the time-averaged driving force for K+ efflux through ATP-sensitive K+ channels. A significant cardioprotective effect during 30 minutes of ischemia plus 60 minutes of reperfusion could not be demonstrated in this model. In excised membrane patches studied at room temperature, the ability of cromakalim to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels was significantly potentiated by 100 microM but not 15 microM cytosolic ADP, suggesting that in addition to the modest fall in cytosolic ATP during early ischemia, the rapid increases in cytosolic ADP may further sensitize cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channels to activation by cromakalim.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association