In vitro effects of a recombinant toxin targeted to the fibroblast growth factor receptor on rat vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.
The dominant mechanism responsible for restenosis after angioplasty is believed to be the activation of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to their proliferation, migration to the subintima, and further proliferation. To develop novel strategies that might inhibit or prevent restenosis, we previously used a chimeric toxin composed of transforming growth factor-alpha (which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor) and mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin to preferentially recognize and kill rapidly proliferating, versus quiescent, vascular SMCs. We have recently cloned and expressed a recombinant gene encoding Pseudomonas exotoxin with a mutated (nonfunctional) cell recognition domain fused with the ligand acidic fibroblast growth factor, termed aFGF-PE66(4Glu)KDEL; thus, this recombinant toxin targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor. In the present study, we evaluated the relative effects of this chimeric toxin on quiescent versus rapidly proliferating vascular SMCs and also determined whether aFGF-PE66(4Glu)KDEL exerted different effects on SMCs versus endothelial cells. Rapidly proliferating SMCs (grown in 10% fetal bovine serum) were very sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of aFGF-PE66(4Glu)KDEL, whereas cytotoxicity was significantly less when the SMCs were in a quiescent state (grown in medium supplemented with 0.5% fetal bovine serum). The chimeric toxin was also significantly less cytotoxic against endothelial cells. Competition studies using excess acidic fibroblast growth factor indicated that the cytotoxic effects are specifically mediated by the fibroblast growth factor receptor. Thus, the present studies suggest a potentially expanded role of recombinant toxin therapy in restenosis: multiple receptors can be targeted, and cytotoxic effects, at least in vitro, can be preferentially directed to rapidly proliferating vascular SMCs, with relative sparing of vascular endothelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association