Comprehensive model of transport and metabolism of adenosine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in the guinea pig heart.
Regulation of blood flow and mitochondrial respiration in the heart would be clarified by improved knowledge of interstitial concentrations and cellular production rates of adenosine; however, these variables cannot be measured directly. To interpret indexes that are available, a comprehensive mathematical model was developed, based on a large body of experimental data. The model describes most of the important pathways of capillary-tissue transport and cellular metabolism of adenosine in the guinea pig heart. It includes capillary flow, solute transport between tissue regions, nonlinear enzyme kinetics for adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, and reversible biunireactant kinetics for S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, intracellular production of adenosine via AMP hydrolysis and transmethylation, and extracellular production of adenosine. A single set of parameter values for the model was obtained in the first stage of the analysis by taking certain values directly from published sources, other values were subject to specific constraints, and other values were determined by parameter optimization. The effects of flow and endothelial metabolism on the relation between interstitial and venous adenosine concentrations were determined. The relation between myocardial adenosine production rate and S-adenosylhomocysteine accumulation in the presence of excess homocysteine was estimated. In the second stage of the analysis, the model was used to investigate the mechanism of myocardial adenosine production, without changing the parameter values. Cellular adenosine production rates were estimated by fitting measurements of venous adenosine release obtained during altered energetic conditions in experiments by different investigators. The original results showed a dissociation between measurements of cytosolic AMP concentrations and venous adenosine release. It is concluded that 1) it is essential to account for the effect of flow on interstitial and venous adenosine concentrations, since decreased flow may produce effects outwardly resembling inhibition of the enzyme 5'-nucleotidase, 2) adenosine concentrations in epicardial transudate are not in equilibrium with interstitial fluid, and 3) the rate of cellular adenosine production increases monotonically with free cytosolic concentrations of AMP during a variety of alterations in energy balance of the guinea pig heart.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association