Alpha 1-receptor-independent activation of protein kinase C in acute myocardial ischemia. Mechanisms for sensitization of the adenylyl cyclase system.
The activity of the adrenergic system plays an important role in the genesis of malignant arrhythmias and the spreading of the infarcted zone in acute myocardial ischemia. Acute myocardial ischemia induces an increased activity of adenylyl cyclase. This sensitization at the enzyme level as shown in the isolated perfused rat heart occurs rapidly after the onset of ischemia (5-15 minutes) and is rapidly reversible on reperfusion. With prolonged ischemia, it is only transient and is followed by a gradual loss of the adenylyl cyclase activity. The increased activity of adenylyl cyclase is even retained after partial purification, suggesting a covalent modification of the enzyme. Blockade of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors does not prevent this sensitization, demonstrating that it occurs independently of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor activation. Only blockade of protein kinase C by various inhibitors, such as polymyxin B or staurosporine, is able to completely prevent this sensitization process. Moreover, in acute myocardial ischemia an activation of protein kinase C could be identified using its translocation from the cytosol to the particulate fraction as an indicator. Blockade of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors using prazosin fails to prevent the activation of protein kinase C and consequently the sensitization of the adenylyl cyclase system, indicating that the ischemia-induced translocation of protein kinase C occurs independently of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. These data characterize for the first time an important interaction of two effector enzymes of two distinct signal transduction pathways, i.e., the adenylyl cyclase system and the protein kinase C system in acute myocardial ischemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association