Impact of finite orifice size on proximal flow convergence. Implications for Doppler quantification of valvular regurgitation.
Analysis of velocity acceleration proximal to a regurgitant valve has been proposed as a method to quantify the regurgitant flow rate (Qo). Previous work has assumed inviscid flow through an infinitesimal orifice, predicting hemispheric isovelocity shells, with calculated flow rate given by Qc = 2 pi rN2vN, where vN is user-selected velocity of interest and rN is the distance from that velocity to the orifice. To validate this approach more rigorously and investigate the impact of finite orifice size on the assumption of hemispheric symmetry, numerical and in vitro modeling was used. Finite-difference modeling demonstrated hemispheric shape for contours more than two orifice diameters from the orifice. More proximal than this (where the measured velocity vN exceeded 3% of the orifice velocity vo), flow was progressively underestimated, with a proportional error delta Q/Qo nearly identical to the ratio of contour velocity to orifice velocity, vN/vo. For the in vitro investigations, flow rates from 4.3 to 150 cm3/sec through 0.3 and 1.0 cm2 circular orifices were imaged with color Doppler with aliasing velocities from 19 to 36 cm/sec. Overall, the calculated flow (assuming hemispheric symmetry) correlated well with the true flow, Qc = 0.88Qo-7.82 (r = 0.945, SD = 12.2 cm3/sec, p less than 0.0001, n = 48), but progressively underestimated flow when the vN approached the orifice velocity vo. Applying a correction factor predicted by the numerical modeling, delta Q was improved from -13.81 +/- 13.01 cm3/sec (mean +/- SD) to +1.54 +/- 5.67 cm3/sec.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association