Gentamicin effects on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study assessed gentamicin's effects on ischemia/reperfusion renal injury to better understand when and how it worsens postischemic acute renal failure. Rats were subjected to 25 minutes of renal pedicle occlusion with and without preischemic (15-minute) or postischemic (15-minute or 8-hour) gentamicin treatment (100 mg/kg, by itself a subtoxic dose). Gentamicin's impact on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to isolated rat proximal tubular segments was also assessed. Preischemic and postischemic gentamicin worsened the severity of acute renal failure to the same degree, suggesting that pretreatment induces its effect in the reperfusion period. Gentamicin paradoxically lessened hypoxic damage to proximal tubular segments (assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release), again implying no adverse impact on oxygen deprivation-induced tubular injury. From 0-4 hours of reperfusion, gentamicin approximately halved ATP/ADP ratios (due to increased ADP), indicating a drug-induced defect in cellular energetics. This abnormality temporally correlated with evolving morphological damage. Although antioxidants (deferoxamine and sodium benzoate) have been reported to protect against pure aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity, they did not mitigate gentamicin's adverse impact on postischemic acute renal failure. Gentamicin did not influence ischemia/immediate reperfusion deacylation/reacylation (assessed by renal free fatty acid content) despite its known antiphospholipase activity. Although in the normal kidney gentamicin preferentially accumulated in cortex, in the postischemic kidney, both cortex and outer medullary stripe developed striking (approximately threefold to fivefold) and comparable gentamicin increments. In conclusion, gentamicin appears to exacerbate postischemic acute renal failure by adversely influencing the reperfusion, not the ischemic injury, process. This may occur because increased gentamicin accumulation negatively impacts on reperfusion cellular energetics.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association