Control of the Na-Ca exchanger in isolated heart cells. II. Beat-dependent activation in normal cells by intracellular calcium.
Electrical stimulation of isolated adult rat heart cells in suspension at 4 Hz resulted in a fourfold increase in the rate of sodium influx and efflux across the sarcolemma, with no change in total cell sodium, as measured with 22Na. The magnitude of stimulation-dependent sodium fluxes under these conditions averaged 17 nmol/min/mg protein. The increased rate of efflux was inhibited by tetrodotoxin, verapamil, or dichlorobenzamil and required extracellular calcium. The inhibition by tetrodotoxin was overcome by Bay K 8644. The basal rate of 22Na efflux in cells at rest was inhibited only slightly by dichlorobenzamil. The stimulation-induced efflux was not inhibited by ouabain, but in the presence of ouabain, stimulation increased the rate of accumulation of total sodium by 4 nmol/min/mg. This increase was inhibited by tetrodotoxin or verapamil. A calcium-dependent increase in rate of 22Na influx and efflux could also be induced by KCl addition. This was inhibited by verapamil and dichlorobenzamil but not by tetrodotoxin and was reversed by EGTA, but only after a delay. We conclude the following. 1) The Na-Ca exchanger in cells at rest is no more than 10% activated. 2) The exchanger becomes activated directly or indirectly by calcium that enters the cell through calcium channels during excitation. 3) In this preparation the major part of excitation-induced sodium fluxes are mediated by the Na-Ca exchanger, with only a relatively small direct participation of sodium channels. These channels participate indirectly by promoting calcium channel activation. 4) If all the calcium-dependent sodium fluxes were Na-Ca exchange, then calcium flux through the exchanger per beat would be about sevenfold larger than that through the calcium channels. An undetermined part of the calcium-dependent sodium fluxes, however, could be a direct Na-Na exchange through the activated Na-Ca exchanger.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association