Priming by platelet-activating factor of endotoxin-induced lung injury and cardiovascular shock.
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a glycerophospholipid known for its unusual potent vasoactive and proinflammatory activities. The present study examined whether PAF might serve as a priming factor in endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) synthesis, cardiovascular shock, and lung injury in anesthetized rats. Intravenous infusion of PAF (1 pmol/kg/min for 60 minutes, n = 5) alone or endotoxin (0.1 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus, n = 5) failed to alter blood pressure, serum TNF alpha and thromboxane B2, platelet and leukocyte count, and hematocrit, nor was lung histology, myeloperoxidase activity, and water content changed. In contrast, the combined administration of PAF and endotoxin markedly elevated serum TNF alpha (1,359 +/- 362 pg/ml, n = 5, p less than 0.01) and thromboxane B2 (43 +/- 5 pg/100 microliters, n = 8, p less than 0.01) along with hypotension, hemoconcentration, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most notably, the combined regimen caused neutrophil aggregation, adhesion, and accumulation into the lung parenchyma along with platelet-fibrin deposits in postcapillary venules, pulmonary edema, and increased lung myeloperoxidase activity. The role of PAF in this process was confirmed by 1) the prevention of the priming effect by pretreatment with the PAF antagonist BN 50739 (n = 5), and 2) the failure of lyso-PAF, the cardinal nonactive PAF-metabolite, to prime for endotoxin-induced production of TNF alpha (n = 4). These data suggest that PAF could serve as a key mediator in priming for endotoxin-induced tissue injury, especially the typical pulmonary pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome, a severe pathological outcome of septic shock, burns, and multiple organ injury.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association