Relation between lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial cell injury and entry of macromolecules into the rat aorta in vivo.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes endothelial cell injury both in vitro and in vivo. It is widely believed that this injury in vivo enhances the transport of macromolecules from plasma into the interstitial space of the underlying artery wall. A new technique was used in rats to obtain high resolution transmural profiles of macromolecules in vivo. We compared the time course of the macromolecular transport into the aortic tissue in vivo after LPS injection to that of LPS-induced endothelial cell death and the proliferative response of the endothelium to LPS injury. At a dose of 1 mg LPS/kg body wt, endothelial cell death reached a maximum by 36 hours after LPS injection and remained elevated for 96 hours; the peak of the S phase of endothelial cell proliferation was observed 48 hours after injection. To examine the effect of LPS on macromolecular accumulation, we measured aortic intimal and medial transmural concentration profiles of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) after circulation of HRP for 15 minutes. The data revealed a transient increase in total aortic accumulation (reflecting predominantly the media), which was maximal between 12 and 48 hours after LPS injection. Although total medial accumulation was found to return to near control levels by 72 hours after LPS injection, intimal accumulation remained elevated above control levels for 120 hours. When HRP was added to the perfusate of an in situ aorta preparation at a near zero transmural pressure gradient, the resulting transmural concentration profiles across aortas from control rats and from rats given LPS 24 hours previously were indistinguishable, whereas a pressure gradient of 60 mm Hg revealed LPS-altered concentration profiles analogous to those in vivo. This suggests that the accumulation of HRP observed in vivo was driven by increased convective transport. These results reveal that LPS enhances entry of macromolecules into the aorta wall in vivo. The changes in macromolecular transport do not, however, correlate temporally with endothelial cell death or proliferation. The results are consistent with an LPS-induced decrease in the endothelial barrier function, which precedes, and may be independent of, cell death and a transient increase in convective transport across the media due to alterations in the barrier function of the internal elastic lamina.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association