Biphasic effects of doxorubicin on the calcium release channel from sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle.
To define the mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, the effects of doxorubicin and caffeine were examined on calcium release channels from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. We found that calcium release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles was induced by both compounds. When sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, calcium-permeable channels were observed. Addition of caffeine (2.5-10 mM) increased channel open probability from less than 0.1% to 40%, and this effect persisted for a mean of 44 minutes. In contrast, doxorubicin (2.5-10 microM) had a biphasic effect; initially, doxorubicin activated the channel, whereas after a mean of 8 minutes, the channel became irreversibly inhibited. Although the degree of channel activation by doxorubicin was concentration dependent, the time needed to inactivate the channel was concentration independent. Pretreatment with dithiothreitol (0.2 mM) prevented doxorubicin-induced channel inactivation, and channel activity persisted for an average of 58 minutes. Dithiothreitol alone did not alter channel open probability. Our results support the hypotheses that 1) the integrity of sulfhydryl groups is important for some aspects of calcium release channel function and 2) activation and inactivation of the channel are separable processes. The biphasic effect of doxorubicin on channel function may also correspond to the clinically observed adverse effects of doxorubicin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that, after prolonged usage, causes a dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association