Influence of lung volume on sympathetic nerve discharge in normal humans.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tidal volume, breathing pattern, and beginning lung volume on the modulation of efferent, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. In seven supine, healthy subjects, we measured MSNA (microneurography of the right peroneal nerve) and beat to beat arterial blood pressure during 1) low-frequency breathing (fb = 12 breaths/min) at tidal volumes (VT) of 30% (control), 50%, and 70% of inspiratory capacity and with inspiratory time-to-total breath time ratios (TI/TTOT) of 0.3-0.5 (control), less than 0.3, and greater than 0.5; and 2) simulated exercise hyperpnea (fb = 40 breaths/min; VT = 60-70% inspiratory capacity; minute ventilation, approximately 90 1). To optimize our ability to discern modulatory effects, breathing was performed during three conditions of heightened MSNA: nonhypotensive (less than 20 mm Hg) lower-body negative pressure, isometric handgrip exercise, and posthandgrip vascular occlusion (ischemia). PETCO2 was maintained at normal levels by adjusting the FICO2. Within-breath modulation of MSNA was observed during control tidal breathing with approximately 65% of the burst frequency occurring during the expiratory phase. Deep, low-frequency breathing potentiated this modulatory influence (p less than 0.05 versus control) and produced near-complete sympathoinhibition from onset-mid inspiration to early-mid expiration. Increasing (slow inspiration) and decreasing (fast inspiration) TI/TTOT shifted the onset of sympathoinhibition occurring later (greater change in volume) and earlier (less change in volume) during inspiration, respectively. In two subjects who performed deep breathing from an elevated beginning lung volume, the sympathoinhibition was observed earlier in the inspiratory period and with less change in volume compared with control. These within-breath modulatory effects did not appear to be due solely to changes in arterial pressure. Sustained low- or high ("exerciselike")-frequency deep breathing did not alter total minute MSNA compared with control breathing. These results demonstrate that the depth and pattern of breathing, and possibly the starting lung volume, exert marked influences on the within-breath modulation of MSNA in humans. Our findings also suggest that these modulatory effects may be mediated, at least in part, by pulmonary stretch reflexes.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association