Relation between sympathetic outflow and vascular resistance in the calf during perturbations in central venous pressure. Evidence for cardiopulmonary afferent regulation of calf vascular resistance in humans.
Vascular studies in humans have advanced the concept that, during orthostatic stress, cardiopulmonary afferents reflexly regulate vascular resistance in the forearm but exert surprisingly little if any effects on vascular resistance in the calf. In contrast, neurophysiological studies have indicated that unloading of cardiopulmonary afferents during lower body negative pressure evokes comparable increases in sympathetic outflow to the muscles of both the forearm and the calf. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine if alterations in central venous pressure over the physiological range trigger reflex changes in muscle sympathetic outflow that not only are statistically significant but also are large enough to alter vascular resistance in the calf. To accomplish this aim, we measured calf blood flow with plethysmography and simultaneously performed microelectrode recordings of sympathetic outflow to calf muscles in conscious humans during maneuvers designed to alter the loading conditions of the cardiopulmonary afferents. We found that calf vascular resistance increased by 33 +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM, p less than 0.05) during decreases in central venous pressure produced by nonhypotensive lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and decreased by 26 +/- 5% (p less than 0.05) during increases in central venous pressure produced by nonhypertensive infusion of normal saline. These changes in calf resistance were at least as large as the changes in forearm resistance evoked by these maneuvers and were accompanied by parallel changes in peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association