Pressure-induced vasoconstriction of renal microvessels in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Studies in the isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidney.
The capacity of small arteries to respond to increased intravascular pressure may be altered in hypertension. In the kidney, hypertension is associated with a compensatory shift in the autoregulatory response to pressure. To directly determine the effects of established hypertension on the renal microvascular response to changes of perfusion pressure, we evaluated pressure-induced vasoconstriction in hydronephrotic kidneys isolated from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Vessel diameters of interlobular arteries (ILAs) and afferent and efferent arterioles were determined by computer-assisted videomicroscopy during alterations in renal arterial pressure (RAP) from 80 to 180 mm Hg. Increased RAP induced a pressure-dependent vasoconstriction in preglomerular vessels (afferent arterioles and ILAs), but not in postglomerular vessels (efferent arterioles). The calcium antagonist nifedipine prevented pressure-induced afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction with a similar half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) (WKY, 63 +/- 27 vs. SHR, 60 +/- 32 nM). The pressure-activation curves for ILAs in SHR and WKY were similar. In contrast, the pressure-activation curve for afferent arterioles in SHR kidneys exhibited a rightward shift, which was observed at every segment of the afferent arteriole (i.e., near ILA, at midportion, and near glomerulus). These findings demonstrate that the ILA and the afferent arteriole both possess the ability to constrict in response to increased pressure, whereas this property is lacking in the efferent arteriole. Hypertension was associated with a compensatory shift in the pressure response of the afferent arteriole, such that higher RAPs were required to elicit vasoconstriction in this vessel.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association