Effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha, lymphotoxin, and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on hemodynamics, lung microvascular permeability, and eicosanoid synthesis in anesthetized sheep.
We infused recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rhTNF alpha), lymphotoxin (rhLT), and Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into anesthetized sheep with a lung lymph fistula to compare their effects on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, lung lymph dynamics, and eicosanoid release. rhTNF alpha (25-150 micrograms/kg, n = 6 sheep), but not rhLT (25 micrograms/kg, n = 3), rapidly increased lung lymph and plasma levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-k-PGF1 alpha) and caused profound systemic vasodilation and hypotension. Meclofenamate pretreatment (10 mg/kg) of three other sheep given 25 micrograms/kg rhTNF alpha prevented the increase of lymph and plasma 6-k-PGF1 alpha levels, systemic vasodilation, and the early (less than 2 hrs) but not the late (4-6 hours) hypotension caused by rhTNF alpha. LPS (1 micrograms/kg, n = 11) induced a briefer increase of lymph 6-k-PGF1 alpha levels than did rhTNF alpha while plasma 6-k-PGF1 alpha levels did not increase. LPS induced more gradual hypotension than did rhTNF alpha but did not cause systemic vasodilation. LPS and rhTNF alpha, but not rhLT, increased lymph thromboxane B2 (TXB2) levels during the first hour of study, whereas only LPS acutely increased plasma TXB2 levels. LPS caused acute pulmonary vasoconstriction and greater acute pulmonary artery hypertension than did either rhTNF alpha or rhLT. Whereas LPS-treated sheep required less fluid transfusion than rhTNF alpha-treated sheep to maintain mean systemic arterial pressure greater than 50 mm Hg, LPS infusion caused a greater increase of lung lymph protein clearance. rhTNF alpha caused minimal alterations of lung microvascular permeability. We conclude that eicosanoid mediators contribute importantly to differences of systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics caused by these agents in sheep. rhTNF alpha cannot account for all of the LPS-induced hemodynamic, lung lymph, and eicosanoid responses in sheep.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association