Opiate receptor antagonism in right-sided congestive heart failure. Naloxone exerts salutary hemodynamic effects through its action on the central nervous system.
Opiate receptor inhibition causes adrenergic receptor-mediated increases in aortic pressure, cardiac output, and left ventricular contractile function in right heart failure. To study whether the effects of opiate receptor inhibition are mediated by means of an action on the central opiate system, we administered equimolar doses of naloxone hydrochloride and naloxone methobromide (MeBr) and normal saline to heart failure dogs. Chronic stable right heart failure was produced by progressive pulmonary artery constriction and tricuspid valve avulsion. Naloxone hydrochloride caused an increase in mean aortic pressure, cardiac output, left ventricular dP/dt and dP/dt/P, plasma catecholamines, and regional blood flows to the myocardium, quadriceps muscle, kidneys, and splanchnic beds. Plasma beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropin also increased. In contrast, neither normal saline nor naloxone MeBr (which does not cross the blood-brain barrier) affected the systemic or regional hemodynamics or neurohormones. Naloxone hydrochloride was also administered to anesthetized heart failure dogs. Pentobarbital anesthesia removed cortical perception of nociceptive stimulation, reduced the increase in plasma epinephrine, and abolished vasodilation in skeletal muscle that occurred in conscious dogs after naloxone hydrochloride administration but had no major effects on responses of plasma norepinephrine, systemic hemodynamics, or other regional blood flows to opiate receptor inhibition. Naloxone hydrochloride had no effect in sham-operated dogs. The results indicate that the hemodynamic effects of naloxone are mediated by an action within the central nervous system. Furthermore, since pentobarbital anesthesia did not markedly alter the hemodynamic responses to naloxone hydrochloride, the acute salutary effects of opiate receptor inhibition probably are not caused by removal of the antinociceptive effect of endogenous opioids in heart failure.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association