Load responsiveness of protein synthesis in adult mammalian myocardium: role of cardiac deformation linked to sodium influx.
Exposure of adult mammalian myocardium to increased hemodynamic loads augments cardiac protein synthesis, ultimately leading to hypertrophy of the affected chamber. This established relationship between loading conditions and protein synthesis was examined in terms of two questions. First, is there a basic difference between the anabolic effect of a passive load imposed on diastolic myocardium and that of an active load generated by systolic myocardium? This issue was addressed by measuring [3H]phenylalanine incorporation into muscle protein in either quiescent or contracting ferret papillary muscles, set at known isometric lengths. Myocardial protein synthesis increased in proportion to total muscle tension in each case, with an equivalent relation describing both quiescent and contracting muscles. Synthesis of two contractile proteins, actin and myosin heavy chain, were enhanced by muscle loading. Thus, a quantitative rather than qualitative difference between the anabolic effects of diastolic and systolic loading was demonstrated. Second, since increased sodium influx is an initial cellular response requisite to the growth-inducing activity of many substances, and since sodium entry through stretch-activated ion channels is stimulated by deformation of the sarcolemma, does cardiac deformation during increased loading promote sodium influx as a signal to increase anabolic activity? In either quiescent or contracting papillary muscles, the rate of 24Na+ uptake was found to increase with load. Streptomycin, a cationic blocker of the mechanotransducer ion channels, was without effect on protein synthesis in stimulated but slack muscles; however, it inhibited, in a dose-related manner, the augmented protein synthesis otherwise observed in contracting muscles developing tension. At 500 microM, streptomycin did not reduce active tension, but it did reduce the synthesis of both actin and myosin heavy chain. In a second pharmacologic approach, inotropic agents were chosen which uniformly increased muscle tension development but which had contrasting effects on sodium influx. Protein synthesis increased in the presence of Na+ influx enhancers, monensin or veratridine; however, protein synthesis decreased in the presence of amiloride, a sodium influx inhibitor. Thus, myocardial protein synthesis varied directly with sodium influx despite the positive inotropic effect observed with each of these agents. In addition, inhibition of protein synthesis by ouabain demonstrated that activation of the Na+ pump is required for the anabolic effect of load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association