Acceleration of the wavefront of myocardial necrosis by chronic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in dogs.
Previous studies have shown that hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (HT-LVH) increase completed infarct size. Myocardial infarction progresses in a wavefront of myocardial necrosis from the subendocardium to the subepicardium. We tested two hypotheses: First, HT-LVH accelerates the wavefront of myocardial necrosis when compared with normotensive animals; and second, lowering of arterial pressure by infusing nitroprusside 1 hour after coronary artery occlusion exerts a salutary effect on infarct size. To test these hypotheses, systemic hypertension (mean aortic pressure = 141 +/- 3 mm Hg) and left ventricular hypertrophy (18% increase in left ventricular mass) were induced in dogs using a single-kidney, single-clip model. Seventeen adult mongrel dogs were used as controls. We measured mean aortic pressure, heart rate, left atrial pressure, and myocardial perfusion (microspheres) in several groups of normal and HT-LVH awake dogs. In two groups (normal and HT-LVH), 1 hour of circumflex coronary artery occlusion was followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. In two additional groups (normal and HT-LVH), 3 hours of circumflex coronary artery occlusion was followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. In another group with HT-LVH, nitroprusside was infused to reduce mean arterial pressure to 100 mm Hg beginning 1 hour after occlusion and was continued for the duration of reperfusion period (HT-LVH + N). Infarct size was assessed using triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain and risk area was determined using postmortem barium angiography. Fifteen of 17 (88%) control animals survived coronary artery occlusion, whereas only 17 of 42 (40%) dogs with HT-LVH survived coronary occlusion (p less than 0.05). Infarct-to-risk ratios in the various layers of the left ventricular wall were determined for survivors in all groups. After 1 hour of coronary occlusion more than twice as much mid-wall and epicardium was infarcted in the HT-LVH group compared with the control group. After 3 hours of coronary occlusion significantly more endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium was infarcted in the dogs with HT-LVH. In the nitroprusside-treated HT-LVH dogs, the infarct sizes were similar to control animals. From these data we conclude: 1) the rate of infarction is accelerated in animals with HT-LVH; 2) nitroprusside infused 1 hour after coronary artery occlusion and continued throughout the reperfusion period exerts beneficial effect on infarct size when compared with control animals; and 3) acute coronary artery occlusion in animals with HT-LVH is associated with significantly greater mortality when compared with control animals.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association