Effects of chronic inhibition of converting enzyme on mechanical and structural properties of arteries in rat renovascular hypertension.
The effect of hypertension and of therapy by converting enzyme inhibitor (S 9490-3, perindopril) on the function and structure of large arteries has been studied in two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. After one month without treatment, clipped hypertensive rats (n = 24) and sham-operated rats (n = 24) were randomly allocated to treatment by S 9490, 1 mg/kg once a day (n = 24) or to placebo (n = 24) and pursued for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic parameters, including instantaneous pressure and aortic velocity measured by Döppler, were recorded under anesthesia at the end of the treatment period. Passive mechanical properties of carotid arteries were recorded in situ in the presence or the absence of smooth muscle cell activity (potassium cyanide poisoning). Morphological parameters of the aortic media, including medial thickness, nucleus density, and cross sectional area and relative density in proteins of interstitial matrix, were recorded by an automated morphometrical system. Hypertension was associated with an increase in characteristic impedance of the aorta and a decrease in compliance of the arterial system. Treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors completely reversed these in vivo markers of the rigidity of large arteries. Hypertension was associated with a shift of the passive pressure-volume relation in the carotid. Treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors normalized the carotid pressure-volume relation, whereas poisoning smooth muscle cells induced a disappearance of the curve differences between hypertensive and normotensive animals. Morphometric analysis of aortic walls permits us to report this functional change to structural modification of the arterial wall. Aortic media thickness was increased by hypertension; this phenomenon was reversed by treatment. Modification of aortic thickness was due to hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells with parallel modifications of absolute amount of collagen, whereas absolute amount of elastin did not change in this early phase of renovascular hypertension in young rats. Treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors reversed the thickness of aortic media without regression of the increase in absolute amount of collagen content whereas absolute amount of elastin content did not change.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association