Torsional deformation of the left ventricular midwall in human hearts with intramyocardial markers: regional heterogeneity and sensitivity to the inotropic effects of abrupt rate changes.
The spiral orientation of left ventricular (LV) fibers suggests that twisting about the ventricular long axis of the apex with respect to the base, i.e., torsional deformation, may be characteristic of LV contraction. To demonstrate this twisting motion, 10 orthotopic human cardiac allograft recipients were studied with biplane cineradiography of tantalum helices implanted within the LV midwall at 12 specific sites. Counterclockwise twisting about the LV long axis (as reviewed from apex to base) accompanied ventricular ejection in all patients. Torsional deformation angles, measured relative to a reference minor axis at the base, were substantially smaller in the anteroapical wall, as compared with counterparts in the apical third of the inferior and lateral walls (anterior = 13.3 +/- 6.0 degrees, inferior = 18.7 +/- 6.3 degrees, and lateral = 23.4 +/- 10.7 degrees). Torsional angles at the midventricular level were roughly half as much and exhibited similar regional variabilities (anterior = 7.6 +/- 3.3 degrees, inferior = 9.0 +/- 3.3 degrees, lateral = 10.7 +/- 5.2 degrees, and septal = 8.8 +/- 3.8 degrees). Comparison of control beats and the initial beat after abrupt cessation of rapid atrial pacing (126 +/- 10 beats/min) with return to the control heart rate (96 +/- 9 beats/min) permitted the mild positive inotropic effect of tachycardia to be assessed at similar levels of ventricular load. Torsional deformation of the anteroapical and inferoapical sites increased significantly (p less than 0.05) over control values to 15.6 +/- 7.5 degrees and 21.2 +/- 5.5 degrees, respectively. In contrast, torsional deformation of the lateral wall was essentially unchanged. These data provide direct evidence for torsional deformation of the left ventricle in humans, demonstrate that torsion of the LV chamber is nonuniform, and suggest a dependence of LV torsion upon contractile strength that is attenuated in the lateral wall.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association